THE THIRD CONDITIONAL
In a Type 3 conditional
sentence, the tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect, and
the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional:
If + past perfect
If it had rained
If you had worked
you would have got wet
have passed the exam.
In these sentences, the time is past,
and the situation is contrary to reality. The facts they are based
on are the opposite of what is expressed.
Type 3 conditional sentences, are truly
hypothetical or unreal, because it is now too late
for the condition or its result to exist. There is always an unspoken
If I had
worked harder I would have passed the
(but I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the
If I'd known
you were coming
I'd have baked a cake
didn't know, and I haven't baked a cake).
Both would and had can be
contracted to 'd, which can be confusing. Remember that you
would in the IF-clause, so in the example above, "If I'd
known" must be "If I had known", and "I'd
have baked" must be "I would have
a. If I'd
known you were in hospital, I would have visited
b. I would have
bought you a present if I'd known it was your
c. If they'd
had a better goalkeeper they wouldn't have lost the
d. If you had told me you were on the Internet, I'd
have sent you an e-mail.
e. Would you have bought an elephant if
how much they eat?