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THE FUTURE PERFECT & CONTINUOUS TENSE



The Future Perfect tense is used to refer to a non-continuous action which will be completed by a certain time in the future.

--> Helena will have finished the work by Wednesday.
--> I will have cleaned the room before the guests arrive.
--> They will have eaten breakfast by the time he gets up.

In these examples, the use of the Future Perfect indicates that the actions of finishing the work, cleaning the room, and eating breakfast will have been completed before the coming of Wednesday, the arrival of the guests, and his getting up take place.

The Future Perfect shows the time before which something will finish. For example:
--> Next Friday, I'll have worked here for 5 years.
(When next Friday comes, it will be 5 years since I started working here.)

We often use by to show the time before which something is completed, for example:
--> Can I borrow you book? - You can have it tomorrow, I'll have read it by then.
--> I'll have left by the time you arrive.

b. Formation
The Future Perfect of any verb is formed from the Simple Future of the auxiliary to have, followed by the past participle of the verb. For instance, the Future Perfect of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:

  I will (shall) have worked
  you will have worked
  he will have worked
  she will have worked
  it will have worked
  we will (shall) have worked
  they will have worked



c. Questions and negative statements
As is the case with other English tenses, questions and negative statements in the Future Perfect are formed using the first auxiliary.

Questions are formed by placing the first auxiliary before the subject. For example:

Affirmative Statement Question
  It will have worked.   Will it have worked?
  They will have worked.   Will they have worked?

Negative statements are formed by placing the word not after the first auxiliary. For example:

Affirmative Statement Negative Statement
  It will have worked.   It will not have worked.
  They will have worked.   They will not have worked.

Negative questions are formed by placing the first auxiliary before the subject, and the word not after the subject. However, when contractions are used, the contracted form of not immediately follows the first auxiliary. For example:

Without Contractions With Contractions
  Will it not have worked?   Won't it have worked?
  Will they not have worked?   Won't they have worked?



THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

a. Use

The Future Perfect Continuous tense is used to express a continuous, action which will be completed by a certain time in the future.

--> By next January, she will have been living here for a year.
--> You will have been traveling a great deal by the time you return home.
--> He will have been working for ten months by the time he takes his vacation.

In these examples, the use of the Future Perfect Continuous indicates that the continuous, ongoing actions of living, traveling, and working, will have been completed before the events of the coming of January, your returning home, and his taking a vacation, take place.

b. Formation
The Future Perfect Continuous of any verb is formed from the Future Perfect of the auxiliary to be, followed by the present participle of the verb. For instance, the Future Perfect Continuous of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:

  I will (shall) have been working
  you will have been working
  he will have been working
  she will have been working
  it will have been working
  we will (shall) have been working
  they will have been working

c. Questions and negative statements

As is the case with other English tenses, questions and negative statements in the Future Perfect Continuous are formed using the first auxiliary.

Questions are formed by placing the first auxiliary before the subject. For example:

Affirmative Statement Question
  It will have been working.   Will it have been working?
  They will have been working.   Will they have been working?

Negative statements are formed by placing the word not after the first auxiliary. For example:

Affirmative Statement Negative Statement
  It will have been working.   It will not have been working.
  They will have been working.   They will not have been working.

Negative questions are formed by placing the first auxiliary before the subject, and the word not after the subject. However, when contractions are used, the contracted form of not immediately follows the first auxiliary. For example:

Without Contractions With Contractions
  Will it not have been working?   Won't it have been working?
  Will they not have been working?   Won't they have been working?



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